Monthly Archives: June 2017

History Of Backpacking

Backpacking today is a lot easier and more fun then it was in the when it started. People are able to backpack with all the things they love from their homes, such as computers, phones and even watch TV on their trips. Due to all the latest technology like solar panels to charge all their equipment. Back then it was a different story. A lot of people backpacked for necessity either because of disease, starvation, wild animal attacks or robbers to name a few. It was not till the 17th century people traveled for educational or entertainment purposes.

Wealthy European men were sent on a "grand tour" one last hurrah before they settled into marriage and careers. Just like the pre-college trips the teenagers in Europe take these days. Giovanni Careri was the first pioneer to travel the globe for fun. He did this travel in 80 days and wrote the accompanying book "Around the World in Eighty Days'. He was able to do this by smuggling valuables from country to country. The earliest backpackers were the ancient hunters-gatherers. Where they followed animals and ate the wild fruits. These nomadic tribes were the Aborigine Australians, South African Bushmen. Pygmy Tribes of the Congo and the Native Americans.

In 1492 Christopher Columbus ventured to America and David Livingstone explored Africa in 1841 are just two of the many explorers who paved the way for backpackers. In 1920 Lloyd F. Nelson invented the camping backpack by adding a pack board to make the pack more comfortable. Before that the backpack was just a loose sack with shoulder straps. In 1965 President Lyndon Johns proposed the National Scenic Trail Act which encouraged individuals to discover the outdoors and appreciate nature more. This provided hikers with well-defined trails to follow. Greg Lowe designed the internal fame backpack which distributes pack weight across the hips. And the backpacking gear got better from wooden frame to aluminum tubing, heavy canvas to waterproof nylon, steel cookware to titanium, wool clothing to quick dry synthetics and petroleum / wood for stoves to alcohol / butane.

In 1910 backpack is coined. In the 1940's post World War 2 more people had time to travel so the travel trailer and camping grew in popularity. Because of the military design backpacking gear goes lighter with aluminum-alloy frames. Then the lighter frames become popular with outdoor enthusiasts. Then 1970's lighter weight nylon backpacks are everywhere. In 1990 the program Leave No Trace Behind is developed. In 2000 all the best innovations in shelter, sleeping bags, cookware get lighter and easier to carry.

The best is yet to come as the principles of the program Leave No Trace Behind become important for our eco-conscious society and so backpacking will grow more and more. Leave nature as you found it do not disrupt it and our beautiful wild life will continue to flourish.

The Importance of Grammar and Verbal

Grammar and ESL Teaching: Past and Present Tense

Introduction

The teaching of grammar as part of ESL programs is important; while it is a debated subject, it has been demonstrated that “natural learners” of second languages ​​do not become proficient in the language if they do not understand the basic structure as provided by grammar studies. Hinkel and Fotos (2002) note that individuals over a “critical period” of age 15 are at risk for this problem, as are individuals who acquire enough of the second language to be able to communicate even with grammar deficiencies, and many individuals who learn english as their second language do not receive the negative feedback that would let them know they are doing something wrong that they would receive in a structured situation (18).

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature to demonstrate the importance of thorough attention to verbal tense.

Literature Review

Plotnik discusses the effect of tense: every narrative has a base tense, one that moves the action of the communication forward. The use of the tense establishes the mood for the conversation or the story being told – past tense is traditionally the storyteller’s medium, in which events have taken place and people have acted out their destinies. There is a finite basis to expired time. Present tense, on the other hand, promotes a feeling or mood of immediacy and the potential for change or flexibility (Plotnik, 2003).

According to Mc Carthy and Carter (2002), communication involves relational aspects and the desire to express oneself politely and indirectly (as opposed to bluntly), often manifests itself in tense forms that are part of the knowledge of correct grammatical construction. These include verbs in a progressive context such as want, like, have to and so forth. The range of tense helps individuals to create communication with relational, interpersonal meaning. The speaking strategy of tense creates a relationship between the speaker, the event and the listener that can either involve or detach the participants from the event and each other. Understanding and correctly using the past and present tense has the potential of significantly increasing not only effective communication of verbal and written messages, but also of correctly and proactively establishing relational aspects of events and situations that it is an important part of proactive grammar instruction.

Limitations in the development of the English past tense affix -ed have been well-documented in ESL students across a variety of language tasks, including spontaneous conversations, elicited productions, sentence completion, sentence recall, production of nonsense forms, writing samples, and grammaticality judgments. Specifically, “the morphophonological component of English tense marking represents the patterns children need to extract from the input in order to produce the various forms associated with past tense. Specifically, children have to learn to” add -ed “to regular verb stems and recognize the various alternative phonological processes involved in indicating the past tense of irregular verbs. ”

There is a semantic contrast between tenses under three headings, location in time, factuality and backshifting. The primary use of the past tense indicates a situation in which “actions, events, processes, relations, states of affairs or whatever a clause expresses” are dynamic (in which case they ‘take place’) or static in which case they ‘obtain ‘… The past tense may be more directly indicated by an expression including time such as “yesterday”, a definite time in which the topic of the sentence occurred. Use of the past tense remarks on something that has happened, but does not necessary indicate that the situation continues into the present.

Huddleston (1984) noted that past time is an inherently relational concept; the past tense inflection indicates that the time the situation or even took place is past in relationship to another time, usually at the time the sentence is said or written. The time of the situation in the present tense will normally be present or future, and may also be expressed in temporal terms (such as now, next week) or by a subordinate when clause such as’ when she gets here, I am going to talk to her ‘, indicating future. One important use of the subordinate clause is restricted to cases when the future situation in which the predicted event will take place is assured – Huddleston uses the example “He is ill next week” as a nonsensical misuse of the present tense as opposed to the action verb in “We leave for Paris next week” (145). This example shows how incorrect usage of past and present tense can not only impair communication and understanding, but have the potential to affect the “face” of the speaker / writer in social and work settings as well.
Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, & Svartik (1995) identified five major classes of alternations used in the making of English past participles.

The first class includes all regular verbs (eg, cleaned, kicked, smashed) and a large set of irregular verbs, and is composed of those verbs whose past tense and past participle forms are identical (eg, brought, built, caught, had, left, kept, said, taught, thought, told). The second class contains high frequency irregular verbs such as hit, cut, and put that remain unchanged across their present, past, or past participle forms. For a third class of irregular verbs, the past participle is generated via the affixation of -en to their past tense form. This class includes verbs like beaten, broken, spoken, stolen. For the fourth class of irregular verbs, the – en morpheme is affixed to the present tense form (eg, blown, eaten, taken, thrown). A final class of irregular verbs uses participle forms that are distinct from both their present and past tense forms (eg, been, drunk, gone, written, ridden).

Redmond (2003) notes that production of the English past participle requires command of four advanced grammatical contexts: the passive, the present perfect, the past perfect, and the past modal. From syntactic and semantic perspectives, each of usage is considered complex relative to simple active sentences because they require speakers to coordinate multiple relations between tense, voice, aspect, and mood within the verb phrase.

Ionin and Wexler’s 2002 research amongst 20 child ESL learners found that they almost never produce incorrect tense / agreement morpohology. Also, the researchers noted, “the L2 learners use suppletive inflection at a significantly higher rate than affixal inflection, and overgenerate be auxiliary forms in utterances lacking progressive participles (eg, they are help people).
A grammaticality judgment task of English tense / agreement morphology similarly shows that the child ESL learners are significantly more sensitive to the ‘be paradigm’ than to inflection on thematic verbs. These findings suggest that tense is present in the learners’ grammar, and that it is instantiated through forms of the be auxiliary. It is argued that omission of inflection is due to problems with the realization of surface morphology … it is furthermore suggested that second language learners initially associate morphological agreement with verb-raising and, thus, acquire forms of be before inflectional morphology on in situ thematic verbs (95).

Conclusion

The correct use of tense is an important skill for adult ESL individuals to have and the lesson plans developed to address this directly will help them communicate effectively with co-workers and people in the community as to what they want and need, what they have had and have done and also to establish their identity based on their past history and future wants.

It is important for ESL students to learn grammar so that they are able to express personal thoughts in the appropriate syntax. Effective use of syntax is important to show different attitudes and express power and identity. Some incorrect forms of grammar may even be interpreted by the listener / reader as being rude or impolite. The more precisely an individual can express their thoughts and meanings, the more effective their communication will be, and the more potential for success they will have in their interpersonal and business communications throughout their lives.

Five Reasons Why You Should Work For the Travel and Tourism Industry

The travel and tourism industry is a massive global industry that caters for the needs of those who have to travel away from home in terms of providing facilities and services like hotel accommodation, air and road transport. Close to a billion people are involved in international travel in this industry which generates billions of dollars every year. Sometimes making a decision on which industry to work for can be quite hard given the many options available today across the globe. Below are five reasons why you should consider working in the travel and tourism industry.

1. There are lots of work opportunities. The travel and tourism industry has a lot of opportunities employment for those seeking employment. You can work in the aviation sector, road, rail and water transport, accommodation providers like hotels and lodges, leisure and business travel agents and tour guides. It is now also possible to work from home thanks to technology which is convenient for some people like mums who have a child or children and do not want to be far away from home.

2. The perks are good. The travel industry provides rewards that not many other industries do. For example those working in the airline industry can get free tickets for themselves and immediate family members to fly to any destination that the airline they work for flies to. Those who work as travel agents can get reduced travel fares and even pay reduced accommodation rates. Then there are the familiarization trips that those who work in the industry have the opportunity to take. Just think of an all expenses paid trip to places like the Seychelles, France, the Kenyan coast of Mombasa to name just a few.

3. It is a growing industry. In spite of the recent downturn because of the threat of terrorism and the world recession, travel industry players are optimistic about its growth. In good times and bad times people always get the urge to move. And with more and more places becoming accessible because of air travel and with both air travel and hotel rates coming down in order to accommodate peoples pocket there is reason to believe that the travel industry will continue to grow and more markets will be reached which is good news for service providers. Furthermore technology like the internet has made it possible to access markets anywhere in the world, at any time of the day.

4. It is never boring. Working in the industry almost means that you will meet new people from time to time. This is especially true for those who work as frontline staff in travel agencies, airline offices or hotels. Those who work in the airline industry as flight attendants have the opportunity to travel to different parts of the world, visit different towns and cities and see and experience different cultures. That can never be a boring job.

5. You do not need years of studying to work in the industry. You may love a certain profession but because of the years of studying involved in learning it you may be discouraged from joining it. Not so with the travel and tourism industry. Three to six months may be enough depending on what qualification you are studying for to get you started working for this exciting industry. Some people because of their love for the work and experience gained in certain areas of the industry have even started working and studied for the paper qualifications later.

Best and Worst Months to Go

Bahamas weather is predictable in the fall when the islands usually receive a high amount of rain, but it does not stop Caribbean vacationers from flocking there.

The islands are the most popular tourist destination in the region – mainly because of the large number of cruise visits embarking from various US ports along the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast.

Weather in the Bahamas is cooler and rainier than most other places in the region.

Bahamas Temperatures
Even though the islands are thought of as a Caribbean destination, in reality they lie north of the Caribbean.

The northern location results in cooler air and water temperatures from late fall to early spring.

The average monthly high temperature is about 84 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the World Meteorological Organization.

The average monthly low temperature is 69.5 degrees. The average Bahamas temperature is among the lowest in the region in part because the islands lie north of all other Caribbean destinations.

Bahamas Rain by Month
The average monthly rainfall is among the highest at 4.6 inches a month.

The average monthly rain days is nearly 12 per month, also among the highest. According to the WMO, the average number of rain days by month are:

  • January – 8
  • February – 6
  • March – 7
  • April – 8
  • May – 10
  • June – 15
  • July – 17
  • August 19
  • September – 17
  • October – 15
  • November – 10
  • December -18

Bahamas weather in July, August and September has average monthly high temperatures at about 89 degrees, while peak temperatures bottom at less than 80 degrees from December through March.

Rain averages about 7.4 inches a month from June through October with a yearly high of 9.3 inches and 19 rain days in August.

Rainfall is only 1.9 inches a month from December through March.

Best Time to Go to Bahamas
The best time to go to the Bahamas is late spring because of a combination of warm temperatures and lower risk of rain.

Anyone planning to visit the islands who wants to enjoy ocean swimming should avoid Bahamas weather in December through March because of cool weather.

If cool beaches and water are not an issue, winter is a good time to visit because of the low chances for rain.

Visitors also should avoid Bahamas weather in June through October – and especially June and August – because of rain.

Disadvantages of Online Bus Booking

The idea or trend of online bus booking has steadfastly climbed the popularity graph, and has the potential of scoring over its physical counterpart in the very near future. However, as akin to a coin, there is another side to this success story too. There are a number of facts that you should be consciously aware of while out shopping for the best deals in the transportation arena. Even though there are numerous advantages of hopping on the web-based reservation bandwagon, callousness in selecting your firm or reading the fine print may land you in serious trouble – both financial as well as legal.

Recent news, though, has been positive as far as online bus booking is concerned, with GTDC (Goa Tourism Development Corporation) embracing the trend. With government authorities also recognizing the brighter side of web reservations, the darker side of the same is being pushed farther away from public notice.

However, here are a few drawbacks of the online bus booking service, which at times mar the enjoyable experience of reserving a place for yourself on a transport vehicle from the confines of your home:

  • Authenticity

– A lot of portals use the facade of the web as a wall to present fake licenses and registration documents, often convincing the clients of their non-existent authenticity. Make sure you check with the local authorities or with that of the state of origin of the agency, to avoid being conned by the latter.

  • Hidden Costs

– Potential clients often miss out on reading the fine print or hidden terms and conditions stated in the quote. This allows the agency to charge a much higher sum (hidden costs) than the quoted price.

  • Restricted Options

– Some web-based bus reservation sites provide a much restricted outlook – some may offer a cheaper quote on a package tour, conveniently missing out on half of the tourist spots you may have wished to visit had you visited a local travel or booking agency.

  • Special Requirements

– Very few online bus booking services take into consideration special needs of aged or handicapped people. This creates problems for such individuals.

  • Direct Support

– The absence of authentic customer care support, one-on-one interaction and similar after-sales support may cause communication as well as troubleshooting turn limp, even while you are on a trip.

Therefore, even though online bus booking has been a boon for customers who would rather enjoy a quiet laze in their homes, it may turn into a menace too.

Only a handful of online portals provide the standard of service ideally demanded by customers. You can also look up a firm like Ezeego1, which provides online bus booking services in over 4000 pan-India routes, all in a jiffy!

Methods a Hotel Uses to Keep Its Linens and Towels Clean and Fresh

There is nothing better than sliding under fresh, crisp white sheets in a lovely hotel room at the end of the evening. Have you wondered how motels keep their towels and sheets refreshing and clean? Resorts can use hundreds of sets of towels and sheets a day. These establishments use a combination of rapid maintenance and delicate treatment to make sure the prolonged life and cleanliness of their linens. Implement these 5 rules utilized by resorts to extend the life of one's home sheets, towels, and blankets.

One particular way to keep linens fresh and mildew-free is always to hang up the towels after use. Hotels encourage this practice with guests by displaying a sign inside the rest room with the instructions to hang up the towels. When a towel is not hung up to dry after use, mildew can grow around the towels significantly easier, leading to musty odor, even right after laundering. The simple act of hanging a towel may help steer clear of mildew smells inside the towels.

An extremely valuable approach to keep linens fresh is by not under filling or overfilling a washing machine. Filling a washing machine an excessive amount does not allow for adequate mechanical motion to clean the laundry. On the other hand, not filling up a washing machine enough makes it possible for for an excessive amount of mechanical action, triggering the linens to break down quicker. It truly is appropriate to fill a washing machine to approximately 80 percent of the machine's capacity.

It really is also crucial to wash linens on a warm setting, not too hot and not too cold. Washing sheets and towels in cold water is not going to cleanse the linens thoroughly, allowing for some bacteria and dust mites to remain. Nonetheless, because of the frequency of washes, washing those identical linens in hot water can damage the fabric incredibly speedily.

Vinegar can also be a valuable tool for keeping hotel sheets and towels clean. When used in replacement of fabric softener, vinegar removes bacteria and freshens materials. Standard fabric softener coats fabrics with a film, making it tricky to completely clean the linens. Following washing these linens using detergent and vinegar as fabric softener, resort linens will smell clean and will never smell like vinegar whatsoever.

Finally, one crucial component of keeping lodge towels and linen smelling and looking clean is always to cleanse the washers on a regular basis. If mildew grows in a washer, that smell is quickly transferred to the laundered linens, even if they're clean. By being proactive and cleansing the washers on a regular basis, this mildew smell can be avoided.

Resorts that stick to these 5 techniques for cleaning linens will ensure clean sheets and towels for hotel guests. Guests can right away notice the difference if your sheets or towels have not been laundered appropriately. Additionally, these laundry approaches also help extend the life of motels' linens, leading to lower expenses for the resort along with the customer.

9 Tips To Choose The Best Website Development Company

Web development firms have a greater role in enhancing the client company's brand name and their reputation online. In short, the success of a brand online often relies on the expertise of web developers. More and more customers are turning in to web to get details regarding the products and services offered by a particular brand. And as the popular say goes, "First impression is the best impression" which means a website should be as catchy and impressive as possible to turn a prospective customer in to a business.

A lot of web design companies are available to create website for your company according to the budget you have. But only a professional web development company can see the bigger picture of their client requirements instead of compromising for their short-term goals. A lot of research must happen before choosing the best website designing and development company. Landing in to the wrong development partner will result in long-term consequences that might be damaging for the reputation of your brand.

Here are a few tips that will help you choose the right website development company.

Are they Receptive?

This is an important aspect in the selection of the right web development firm. You will have to check whether the website design company is serious in handling your queries and returning calls. If they are making delays in replying to your queries prior to establishing a contract with them, then it is desirable for you to avoid them since their responsiveness in the long-term once the site launches can not be guaranteed at all.

Do they have an advisor to brief you ?

Companies offering best web development services will have advisors who will try to understand your requirements and will advise you whether you will have to make any changes in the designing and functionality of the website that you have in mind. Usually if the designing of the website does not match with the services you offer, it might turn out to be a waste of money. An advisor can help you clear this obstacle before the start of the web development process itself.

Take a look at the web development firm 's own website

Most web design companies showcase their own website to draw clients towards them. If their website is not attractive, then how can they make your website attractive?

Does the web development company provide you with repeated suggestions?

These are strong signs of a genuine website development services company. They often serve you as a trusted guide by claiming that some of your ideas are bad and will have the explanations for it too. It is not necessary for most of the brands approaching website design companies to have a thorough knowledge regarding the changes happening across web standards, eCommerce and security standards, web standards and usability experiences.

Have a look at the previous completed projects

It is essential for the client companies to take a look at the previous projects done by the web development firm they are approaching and prefer to speak with those clients to get a feedback about the web development company.

How after sales service are managed?

This is one area where most of the companies feel disappointed at times with their client web development company. The reason, the lack of enthusiasm to help the brand company once the project is over. The best web development company would engage in a long-term relationship with the client by offering uninterrupted round the clock services to them regarding website maintenance.

Whether direct communication is allowed with the web developers?

More than a marketing person, it is the technical person that will be of use during the development stage of your website. Usually a team of web designers and web developers would be involved in the developmental stages of your website and it is only them who will be able to best understand your requirements when it comes to the creative as well as technical thoughts.

Do you or the web development company own the website code?

Most of the website development companies own the website code since they expect the client to approach them in future also if any changes have to be made. But check whether your company will be comfortable with such restrictions. The client website development company can make the changes easily since they have hands-on experience creating your website where as if you own the website code, you will have the freedom to make any changes. But the task would be a bit difficult for the IT department since the code is developed by the client web development company.

Are comprehensive services offered?

The best web development company would offer comprehensive services and thereby takes the entire responsibility of your website design, development and maintenance. The process starts from developing an initial strategy, planning, design, development, testing as well as marketing.

It has to be taken note that most of these firms are also offering mobile application development. Most of the client companies are moving towards developing a mobile application for their products and services in addition to the website development services since a majority of the customers now uses smartphone for online purchases.